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Avian flu & human physiology Essay | Medicine and …
The first case of avian flu in India was discovered in a factory farm near the small town of Navapur, a fairly isolated community near the Gujarat border. Indian officials initially tried to blamed the outbreak on wild birds and small poultry farms, but it’s likely, according to the GRAIN report, that the infected chickens came from Venkateshwara Hatcheries. Venkateshwara is India’s biggest supplier of poultry and poultry products and ships all over India, including to Navapur. The company denies its involvement. (Nierenberg, 2007, 24)
Besides close location of farm factories to cities, another problem threatens people. The concentration of animal manure also presents a menace to people’s health as it might be the source of infection as well, not mentioning the waste management problems. In this connection the pollution of soil, air and water is inevitable. This problem may assume ever greater importance, if to take into account nitrates that can get from the manure to water, then to plants and as a result they might harm people’s health.
Unfortunately, flu viruses have a way of finding new victims. If a bird flu virus mingles with one of the human flu virus strains, the two viruses could swap genetic material. In theory, the bird flu could pick up genes that make it as contagious as a strain of flu bug that strikes seasonally. One other way the virus could become more likely to infect people could be through gradual genetic changes over time. The virus has shown that it can infect animals that usually do not get the flu, such as cats. And in Germany and Austria, domestic cats have been infected with the virus.
Avian Influenza Name of Student ..
The author considers the problem from different points of view. She takes into account the reasons for such spread of infection, possible ways out and factual measures taken by government in different countries of the world as well as the impact of these measures on economic and social spheres. What is particularly important about the article is that the author provides a global perspective of the issue. By the example of various countries, particularly Asian and African, Danielle Nierenberg shows the scale of the epidemic in the world. The author describes the situation in such countries as Thailand, India, Nigeria, Laos, and comparing and analyzing the situation in all these countries, she gives the readers the possibility to see the seriousness of the problem and its impact on people’s life. Thus, for example the author tells us about the situation in India, where production of meat and eggs has developed greatly for the last thirty years. Consequently the poultry production has much commercialized, which did not lead to better conditions of meat production, as it has already been mentioned. The statistics, given by Nierenberg proves that in reality small farmers should not be blamed for the emerging of epidemic. For example, in Laos in 2004 42 out of 45 outbursts of bird flu were recorded in factory farms and 38 of these outbreaks were in the capital. Similar statistics can be observed in Nigeria, where one of the biggest national farms became the source of epidemic (Nierenberg, 2007).
Domestic fowl, ducks, geese, turkeys, guinea fowl, quail and pheasants are susceptible. Disease outbreaks occur most frequently in domestic fowl and turkeys. A particular isolate may produce severe disease in turkeys but not in chickens or any other avian species. Therefore, it would be impossible to generalize on the host range for avian influenza, for it will likely vary with the isolate. This assumption is supported by reports of farm outbreaks where only a single avian species of several species present on the farm became infected. Many species of wild birds particularly water birds and seabirds - are also susceptible, but infections in these birds are generally sub-clinical.
H7N9 bird flu: Symptoms, causes, and risks
Inactivated quality assured oil-emulsion vaccines have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing mortality, preventing disease, or both, in chickens and turkeys. These vaccines, however, may not prevent infection in some individual birds, and if infected could shed virulent virus. Nevertheless, the amount virus shed is considerable less than that of non-vaccinated and infected birds. It is imperative that the circulating antigenic avian influenza virus is known and the vaccine represent this antigenic strain, since there is no cross-protection among the 15 known HA subtypes. A recombinant fowl pox virus vaccine containing the gene that codes for the production of the H5 antigen has recently been licensed in some countries but is not widely used currently. Homologous inactivated vaccines (H5N1) and heterologous inactivated vaccines (H5Nx) are the most commonly used.
Just like humans, birds can come down with the flu. The illness varies widely in intensity, from mild to deadly. A particularly vicious avian flu virus hit domestic chickens and ducks in several Asian countries in late 2003 and early 2004. Millions of birds have either died from the flu or had to be destroyed to stop the spread of the disease.
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H5N1- Avian Influenza A (Bird Flu) ..
It is imperative that the circulating antigenic avian influenza virus be known and the vaccine represent this antigenic strain, since there is no cross-protection among the 15 known HA subtypes. A recombinant fowl pox virus vaccine containing the gene that codes for the production of the H5 antigen has recently been licensed in some countries but is not widely used currently.
Bird Flu Avian influenza is caused by the H5N1 virus.
Avian influenza is characterised histologically by vascular disturbances leading to oedema, haemorrhages and perivascular cuffing, especially in the myocardium, spleen, lungs, brain and wattles. Necrotic foci are present in the lungs, liver and kidneys. Gliosis, vascular proliferation and neuronal degeneration may be present in the brain.
Bird Flu: Symptoms, Causes, and Risk Factors
Some symptoms of bird flu in humans are similar to those caused by typical flu: fever, cough, sore throat, and muscle aches. Other symptoms include eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases, and life-threatening conditions such as acute respiratory distress.
Bird Flu Research News -- ScienceDaily
Federal health agencies put it simply: Bird flu is an infection caused by avian (bird) viruses. Wild birds around the globe carry these viruses in their intestines, but are rarely sickened by them. For domestic birds like chicken, turkeys, and ducks, however, bird flu can be a killer.
Avian flu outbreak contained: Irvine's - DailyNews Live
Bird flu has two of the key qualities of a global threat: It’s both deadly and (among birds) extremely common. Despite concerted efforts to quell it, it’s still showing up in poultry. It also spreads faster and more widely than any previous bird flu outbreak, and it can be deadly. The only thing keeping it in check at the moment is that it doesn’t spread easily from birds to humans or from humans to humans. Although there have been a few documented instances of transmissions occurring between family members in Indonesia and Thailand, confirmed cases of people catching the bird flu from another person are extremely rare.
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