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ALexander The Great: A True Hero essays
I believe Alexander military skills, loyalty toward others, army moral and support, inspiring speeches and passionate are some of the reason that Alexander the Great successful in his expedition.
Hippolyte Taine, the nineteenth-century French critic, evolved an ecological theory of literature. He looked first and foremost to the national characteristics of western European literatures, and he found the source of these characteristics in the climate and soil of each respective nation. His (5 vols., 1863-1869) is an extensive elaboration of these ideas. It is doubtful that anyone today would agree with the simplistic terms in which Taine states his thesis. It is obvious that Russian literature differs from English or French from German. English books are written by Englishmen, their scenes are commonly laid in England, they are usually about Englishmen and they are designed to be read by Englishmen at least in the first instance. But modern civilization becomes more and more a world civilization, wherein works of all peoples flow into a general fund of literature. It is not unusual to read a novel by a Japanese author one week and one by a black writer from West Africa the next. Writers are themselves affected by this cross-fertilization. Certainly, the work of the great nineteenth-century Russian novelists has had more influence on twentieth-century American writers than has the work of their own literary ancestors. Poetry does not circulate so readily, because catching its true significance in translation is so very difficult to accomplish. Nevertheless, for the past hundred years or so, the influence of French poetry upon all the literatures of the civilized world has not just been important, it has been preeminent. The tendentious elements of literature propaganda for race, nation, or religion have been more and more eroded in this process of wholesale cultural exchange.
The Hero Alexander the Great Essay - 1401 Words
A literate rendering of Alexander’s life, drawing on the most reliable ancient and modern sources. (See also Steven Pressfield’s The Virtues of War: A Novel of Alexander the Great)
Literary criticism, as distinguished from scholarly research, is usually itself considered a form of literature. Some people find great critics as entertaining and stimulating as great poets, and theoretical treatises of literary aesthetics can be as exciting as novels. Aristotle, Longinus, and the Roman rhetorician and critic Quintilian are still read, although Renaissance critics like the once all-powerful Josephus Scaliger are forgotten by all but specialized scholars. Later critics, such as Poe, Sainte-Beuve, Taine, Vissarion Belinsky, Matthew Arnold, Walter Bagehot, Walter Pater, and George Saintsbury, are probably read more for themselves than for their literary judgments and for their general theorizing rather than for their applications (in the case of the first three, for instance, time has confounded almost all the evaluations they made of their contemporaries). The English critics have survived because they largely confined themselves to acknowledged masterpieces and general ideas. Perhaps literary criticism can really be read as a form of autobiography. Aestheticians of literature like I.A. Richards, Sir C.M. Bowra, Paul Valéry, Suzanne Langer, and Ernst Cassirer have had an influence beyond the narrow confines of literary scholarship and have played in our time something approaching the role of general philosophers. This has been true on the popular level as well. The Dane Georg Brandes, the Americans James Gibbons Huneker, H.L. Mencken, and Edmund Wilson these men have been social forces in their day. Literary criticism can play its role in social change. In Japan, the overthrow of the shogunate, the restoration of the emperor, and the profound change in the Japanese social sensibility begins with the literary criticism of Moto-ori Norinaga (1730-1801). The nineteenth-century revolution in theology resulted from the convergence of Darwinian theories of evolution and the technical and historical criticism of the Bible that scholars had undertaken. For many modern intellectuals, the literary quarterlies and weeklies, with their tireless discussions of the spiritual significance and formal characteristics of everything from the greatest masterpiece to the most ephemeral current production, can be said to have filled the place of religion, both as rite and dogma.
The Greatness Of Alexander The Great ..
Although Alexander didn’t have to work too hard to get a good army, as his father laid an extremely firm foundation for his later success, what Alexander accomplished from the moment he became king to the moment he died is why he is the greatest military general ever.
Alexander the Great was a prodigy of warfare. A lethal fighter, before his 30th birthday he personally led the Macedonian army to conquer the Persian empire, the largest and most successful empire in Near Eastern history. His military tactics, logistics, and strategic vision will be relevant as long as human beings fight wars.
But was history's greatest warrior also gay?
Oliver Stone's movie depicts Alexander having affairs with two men in his new film about the Macedonian king. Gay rights advocates would like to enlist Alexander into their ranks in their struggle for various rights; meanwhile, Greek lawyers are threatening legal action over what they claim is the misrepresentation of their national hero.
What are the historical facts?
The truth is that modern sexual categories like homosexual, heterosexual, and bisexual are alien to Alexander's world. No equivalent terms existed at the time. It is therefore anachronistic to apply them to Alexander or any other ancient. In ancient Greece, acting upon a desire (sent by the god Eros) for another man or woman, simply did not lock any man or woman into a sexual camp.
Moderns tend to slot people into sexual categories. The ancient Greeks did not. To understand Alexander's sexuality, and his identity, one must examine the erotic impulses that Alexander acted upon over time for which we have evidence.
To begin at the beginning: in the late second century A.D. writer Athenaeus reports that because the young Alexander had no interest in sex of any kind, his parents (Olympias and Philip) hired a beautiful prostitute named Kallixena to introduce him to Aphrodite's arts. We are not told how this encounter went. However, Aelian of Praeneste, in a historical Miscellany of the late second century A.D., wrote that a certain Pancaste was the first woman with whom Alexander had sex. If Aelian is correct, we might infer that Olympias and Philip did not get their money's worth from Kallixena.
Be that as it may, Alexander's first long-term, intimate relationship probably was with a Macedonian officer named Hephaestion. Born in the same year (356) as Alexander (perhaps), Hephaestion also was educated with him. By the time Alexander reached Asia Minor (modern Turkey) in 334 at the beginning of his conquest of Persia, Hephaestion and Alexander already were close. Taller than Alexander and said to be handsome, through Alexander's favor Hephaestion advanced to the highest positions of command in the empire, despite what many considered to be a quarrelsome nature.
Nevertheless, Hephaestion was known as the "the dearest" of Alexander's friends. Unlike the rest of Alexander's friends, who loved the king, Hephaestion was said to have loved Alexander, and he, him. One contemporary source commented that Alexander was never defeated, except by Hephaestion's thighs. Most scholars have interpreted this as meaning that Hephaestion was Alexander's lover, rather than merely his wrestling companion.
Whatever their relationship, after his victory at the battle of the Issos (in southern Turkey) in 333, Alexander took a beautiful Persian widow named Barsine as his mistress, by whom he had a son named Herakles, which indicates that Alexander's feelings toward Barsine were not completely Platonic. And after the decisive Macedonian victory over the Persians at the battle of Gaugamela (near Mosul in northern Iraq) in 331, Alexander acquired the Persian King Darius's harem of 365 concubines, who had been selected from all the women in Asia for their beauty. Each night these beauties paraded around Alexander's bed so that he might select the one with whom he might lie that night.
Later, when he was in Bactria (roughly Afghanistan), we know that Alexander fell in love with Roxane ("Little Star" in Persian), the daughter of a local nobleman, at first sight. The young woman apparently caught Alexander's eye when she was performing a dance at a party. After Darius' wife, Roxane was said to be the most beautiful woman in Asia. Alexander married Roxane in 327 and she was pregnant with Alexander's child at the time of the king's death in 323.
Alexander's most controversial relationship was with a handsome young Persian eunuch named Bagoas. At a festival of athletics and arts in a town called Salmus (after Alexander returned from India) Bagoas won a prize. After Bagoas picked up his prize, he walked across a theatre and seated himself beside the king. The Macedonians in the theatre applauded loudly and shouted for Alexander to kiss the winner. At last the king put his arms around Bagoas and kissed him.
Some historians have denied that the episode even took place, but there is no good reason to question its historicity.
The Greek word that our source (Plutarch) uses to describe Bagoas (eromenon) was used by earlier writers to identify a younger man involved in a relationship with an older man. While such relationships were broadly educational, they routinely included an erotic element. The first century A.D. historian Curtius Rufus also believed that there was a sexual relationship between the two men.
Finally, after he returned from India, in Susa (Persia) Alexander married two daughters of former Persian kings. We know that Alexander expected these marriages to produce heirs.
Thus, the more Alexander conquered, the more he was conquered by his desire—for two men and hundreds of women. He also developed long-term relationships of some depth with Hephaestion, his mistress Barsine, Roxane, and possibly Bagoas. The gods had bestowed physical beauty upon most of his known sexual partners. Remarkably, unlike many of his Greek contemporaries, Alexander did not see beauty through ethnocentric eyes. Casting his eyes over the women captured after the battle of Issos, Alexander jested that Persian women were a torment for the eyes.
Alexander the Great was neither "gay" nor "straight," but an ambiguous military genius. He defeats all our polarized and polarizing modern categories. Like the Persian King Darius, we may fight hard to take the measure of the man, but, as the Delphic oracle prophesied, Alexander was and is invincible and will never be defeated—by simplification.
Guy MacLean Rogers is a professor of history at Wellesley College and the author of the just-published "Alexander: The Ambiguity of Greatness" (Random House).
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Alexander the Great: Hero or Villain
Alexander the Great, according to the biographer Arrian, “would not have been born without the intervention of the gods” and goes on to say that his life “surpasses the merely human.” Alexander, according to early historians, achieved success because of his superior intellect, creativity, and inhuman military strength and courage....
16/08/1977 · Alexander the Great: Hero or Villain
Alexander the Great, the Macedonian king and the great conqueror of Persian Empire, died at the age of 33 without designating a successor to the Macedonian Empire.
RulaihaTaylor - Alexander the Great Essay
The fascination and relevance of Alexander in the contemporary world have proven to be a reflection of his extraordinary successes, which has led to a strong debate on whether Alexander’s epithet as “The Great” is at all an indication of his achievements.
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