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Plant A Tree And Save The Earth? -- ScienceDaily
The ecosystems may not have recovered from Olson’s Extinction of 270 mya, and at 260 mya came another mass extinction that is called the mid-Permian or extinction, or the , although a recent study found only one extinction event, in the mid-Capitanian. In the 1990s, the extinction was thought to result from falling sea levels. But the first of the two huge volcanic events coincided with the event, in . There can be several deadly outcomes of major volcanic events. As with an , massive volcanic events can block sunlight with the ash and create wintry conditions in the middle of summer. That alone can cause catastrophic conditions for life, but that is only one potential outcome of volcanism. What probably had far greater impact were the gases belched into the air. As oxygen levels crashed in the late Permian, there was also a huge carbon dioxide spike, as shown by , and the late-Permian volcanism is the near-unanimous choice as the primary reason. That would have helped create super-greenhouse conditions that perhaps came right on the heels of the volcanic winter. Not only would carbon dioxide vent from the mantle, as with all volcanism, but the late-Permian volcanism occurred beneath Ediacaran and Cambrian hydrocarbon deposits, which burned them and spewed even more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Not only that, great salt deposits from the Cambrian Period were also burned via the volcanism, which created hydrochloric acid clouds. Volcanoes also spew sulfur, which reacts with oxygen and water to form . The oceans around the volcanoes would have become acidic, and that fire-and-brimstone brew would have also showered the land. Not only that, but the warming initiated by the initial carbon dioxide spike could have then warmed up the oceans enough so that methane hydrates were liberated and create even more global warming. Such global warming apparently warmed the poles, which not only melted away the last ice caps and ended an ice age that had , but deciduous forests are in evidence at high latitudes. A 100-million-year Icehouse Earth period ended and a 200-million-year Greenhouse Earth period began, but the transition appears to have been chaotic, with wild swings in greenhouse gas levels and global temperatures. Warming the poles would have lessened the heat differential between the equator and poles and further diminished the lazy Panthalassic currents. The landlocked Paleo-Tethys and Tethys oceans, and perhaps even the Panthalassic Ocean, may have all become superheated and anoxic as the currents died. Huge also happened, which may have and led to ultraviolet light damage to land plants and animals. That was all on top of the oxygen crash. With the current state of research, all of the above events may have happened, in the greatest confluence of life-hostile conditions during the eon of complex life. A recent study suggests that the extinction event that ended the Permian may have lasted only 60,000 years or so. In 2001, a bolide event was proposed for the Permian extinction with great fanfare, but it does not appear to be related to the Permian extinction; the other dynamics would have been quite sufficient. The Permian extinction was the greatest catastrophe that Earth’s life experienced since the previous supercontinent existed in the .
Karban, a fifty-nine-year-old former New Yorker, is slender, with a thatch of white curls barely contained by a floppy hat. He has shown that when sagebrush leaves are clipped in the spring—simulating an insect attack that triggers the release of volatile chemicals—both the clipped plant and its unclipped neighbors suffer significantly less insect damage over the season. Karban believes that the plant is alerting all its leaves to the presence of a pest, but its neighbors pick up the signal, too, and gird themselves against attack. “We think the sagebrush are basically eavesdropping on one another,” Karban said. He found that the more closely related the plants the more likely they are to respond to the chemical signal, suggesting that plants may display a form of kin recognition. Helping out your relatives is a good way to improve the odds that your genes will survive.
Plant A Tree And Save The Earth
Another important energy concept is efficiency. For the hunter-gatherers who cooked food over the campfire, the energy was used with an efficiency of less than 5% (the energy that benefited the user, such as cooking the food, warming the air, providing light, etc.). When humans began using hearths as they became more sedentary, their energy efficiency increased. As humans built dwellings and fireplaces, energy efficiency increased, and today, energy efficiency in advanced industrialized civilization reaches more than 35%. As humans kept increasing their gross energy input and the efficiency in using the energy, the . Just as , an increased energy surplus meant an easier life and a better chance of survival. In recent years, while the USA’s GDP-per-capita has risen, its energy-consumption-per-capita . Some have argued that it shows how much more efficient the USA’s economy has become, but it is more likely related to the USA’s de-industrialization, as heavy industry has moved to low-wage nations with weak environmental laws. The USA imports more finished goods in which the energy for mining and manufacturing them was used in other nations, like the imperial subsidy that the British received from their colonies, but far more pronounced when the USA is receiving finished industrial goods and not raw materials, as the British received from India. In generating energy, so-called technological societies have as advanced industrial ones, largely due to the .
The USA enjoyed its until the . went home and got pregnant by her returning war-hero husband. I was born in 1958, during that heyday when having children . The USA’s postwar boom was the greatest prosperity that any peoples ever had, and television shows such as , , , , and depicted that golden age, or at least how it ideally appeared. The average American family more resembled , not Ozzie’s. In the 1950s, replaced Rosie as an icon who got her husband’s pipe, paper, and dinner ready after his workday in corporate America. By the early 1960s, the American housewife was liberally imbibing and , and The Rolling Stones soon sang about .
Essay on need to plant trees | The Institute of Health
Wrangham’s hypothesis is more robust and subtle than this essay can do justice to, but I will survey some of the findings, implications, and controversy. Raw food has various nutritional properties that are superior to cooked food, such as vitamins, but because cooked food provides more digestible calories for humans than raw food, it represented an evolutionary advantage. Meat, starches, and seeds are far more digestible when cooked, and are much easier to chew. Today, chimps in will not eat raw seeds of trees, but when a fire passes through the savanna, they search the ground below the trees and eat their cooked seeds.
People and animals universally prefer the taste of cooked food over raw, except for fruit, which was designed by the plant to be eaten by animals; no other foods were designed to be eaten and digested (except nectar, blossoms, and mother’s milk). The toxins created by cooking, such as , can cause health problems in humans, including chronic diseases. But cooking also destroys some toxins, making otherwise inedible food palatable. Cooking also reduces , which makes meat tough, to gelatin (called the protein, when it falls apart), and converts raw starch to a far more digestible form. However, , humans only have to live long enough to produce offspring. The degenerative diseases (especially artery disease, cancer, and diabetes) that shorten human lives today would have been irrelevant in the ancient past, when virtually nobody lived long enough to die of old age and they could reproduce long before the deleterious effects of cooked food caught up with them. Many detriments of cooking and food processing have only become important to human welfare with the advent of civilization. Cooking would have been an undisputed advantage long ago.
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and encourage them to plant and care new trees
Just as the reason why our may have and why may have , that founder group may well as an act of desperation, driven to the margins by their neighbors. If they left about 60-50 kya, as seems the most likely timeframe in light of today’s evidence, by 10 kya the entire planet had been conquered. Behaviorally modern humans were atop all terrestrial food chains outside of Africa, and in Africa megafauna avoided them, so there was nothing on Earth that threatened human existence except for other humans. Like the way in which the australopithecine Tesla who made the first stone tool the that emerged from his/her act a half-million years later, by 10 kya (about a tenth as long as the previous epochal innovative interval). Several million descendants of that founder group were spread across the planet, from tundra to desert to rainforest, and they filled all inhabitable continents. The people existing 10 kya would have been anatomically recognizable and all had , as they do today. However, with , versus what the founders left Africa with (several million people versus ), the immensely diverse climates and the tools used to survive in them, as well as their mutually unintelligible languages, the founder group’s members would not have comprehended a tour of their descendants’ world. The founder’s descendants even began to look different as evolution marched onward, and many racial differences would have been noticeable, although the bizarre had yet to appear in . Some people of 10 kya even had companions called (first domesticated as long as 33 kya, wolves were domesticated more than once, and the modern dog was domesticated about 15 kya), which would have seemed a miracle, terror, or strange beyond imagining. The world’s large animals paid the ultimate price for fueling that expansion, and the thus began.
Essay on plant trees save environment picture
The culture’s killing implements abruptly appeared in the archeological record and disappeared just as fast, after the easily killable megafauna went extinct. Today’s North American megafauna are , not North American megafauna that learned to avoid humans. Bison are the only significant exception, although they came from Asia, too, and explaining their survival remains a minor curiosity, but is about the only circumstance not neatly aligned with the overkill scenario. The “” paper concluded that although the South American extinction was the greatest of all, it is the most poorly investigated and that the overkill hypothesis cannot yet be attached to South American extinctions. That may be a prudent position for a specialist who pronounces judgment only when all the evidence is in, but I will be among the most surprised people on Earth if the pattern of 50 thousand years did not continue there, especially since it had no ice sheets. There can be no more pertinent example than comparing Africa to South America. They inhabited the same latitudes and have similar climates, separated by the Atlantic Ocean. Africa was the home of humanity, where its animals had millions of years to adapt to the human presence, and Africa only lost about 10% of its megafauna (probably to human hunters with their advanced weaponry) while South America lost nearly all of its megafauna, and quickly. Climate change did it? How could it have even contributed?
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