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Sleep deprivation thesis statement ipgproje com aploon
Protection (Meddis 1975)
In our evolutionary past night time would have been a time of great danger. Since as a species we have poor night vision we would have been unable to forage, likely to fall and hurt ourselves and wide open to predation from species with better night sight. Sleep would have been an evolutionary advantage since it would have kept us out of harm’s way. As a result, those members of the species that slept would have been more likely to have survived to maturity and passed on their genes, ensuring that as an activity, sleep would have been retained in our behavioural repertoire. The theory also considers the metabolic rates of other species, predicting that animals with high metabolic rates will need to spend more time eating so have less time to sleep.
Animals such as the shrew are safer since they have a burrow to return to, but due to their high metabolic rate (heart rate of 800 beats per minute) and need to be eating constantly only have time to sleep for two hours per day. Generally speaking smaller species have higher metabolic rates because of their large surface area to volume ratio. This results in loss of a lot of heat energy in comparison to species that are larger.
Larger preyed-upon species, e.g.
deprived of REM or deprived of NREM sleep only.
Dement (1960) deprived volunteers of either REM or NREM sleep and observed the consequences. He found that REM deprivation was most dramatic with participants becoming more aggressive and having very poor concentration. He also reported REM rebound effects, in which participants would try and catch up on lost REM sleep. For example going straight into REM when allowed to go back to sleep. By the seventh night Dement reported that participants were averaging 26 attempts per night to enter REM. After the procedure when they were allowed an uninterrupted night’s sleep they spent much longer in REM. This is similar to the results reported following the Randy Gardner study and again reinforces the apparent importance of REM sleep.
In practice partial sleep deprivation is not possible over any period of time since participants need to be woken so often it quickly deteriorates into total sleep deprivation.
Overall evaluation of animal deprivation studies
With animal studies there are clearly issues of generalising to humans.
The animal studies are particularly cruel since unlike humans the animals have no idea that the experiment will eventually end!
Conclusions on sleep function (courtesy of Dwyer and Charles).
The evolutionary theories of sleep are unable to explain why sleep deprivation has such adverse effects whereas theory restoration can. However, it is clear that sleep is essential for survival and this is in agreement with the evolutionary theory’s adaptive value of sleep. Modern ideas assume that restoration does in itself serve an adaptive function so both evolutionary and restoration theories may be relevant. Furthermore, sleep may serve other useful purposes as yet not considered. One of these could be to allow us to dream.
Sleep Deprivation a good thesis is
Choosing to start a list like this with the issue of adolescent sleep might surprise you. Most parents usually worry most about infant sleep. But it’s for just this reason that I lead with Snooze… Or Lose! Learning good sleep habits is very important for all of childhood, but once puberty hits bodies change, along with the brain. Emsellem clearly explains that teens don’t stay up late just to defy you or exert their independence; instead, due to the delayed daily release of melatonin it is actually difficult for them to fall asleep before midnight. Combine that with earlier than ever high school start times, 24/7 connectedness, and competitive academic and extracurricular environments, and you have the recipe for tired, grouchy teens. Emsellem’s advice concerns children aged 11-22 and she describes how to determine if your child has a severe sleep issue, what treatments are available (light therapy and melatonin pills), and how you can take action to get school start times later. She describes the work of a group of parents in Wilton, Connecticut to get school start times later (fun fact, this town is the home base for Brain, Child!)
back to level 3 and then to level 2. However, instead of going back to level 1, after just over an hour we enter a very bizarre state of consciousness.
REM sleep (10 minutes at start of night, up to an hour later in the night)
Sometimes referred to rather unimaginatively as stage 5, or more descriptively ‘paradoxical sleep.’ REM is strange. The brain now becomes very active, almost indistinguishable from a waking brain. Remember the activation-synthesis theory of dreaming? The pons in the midbrain throws out bursts of electrical activity into the cortex lighting it up like a Christmas tree. Heart rate and blood pressure increase, as does body temperature, and the eyes twitch rapidly giving this stage its name. But, despite this frantic activity the body remains motionless, cut off from the brain by the pons. We are paralysed and unable to act out the brain’s bizarre thoughts.
REM is now thought by some to be the deepest stage of sleep since it is now that we are most difficult to wake up. However, this could be as a result of being so absorbed in our dreams.
Paralysis appears to be to prevent the body acting out our dreams and endangering our lives. Cats that have had lesions to the pons do in fact appear to act out their dreams. Remember, however, that we have no certain way of knowing whether lower species do dream; it is merely assumed that they do because all warm blooded creatures (birds and mammals), with the exception of the very early egg-laying mammals, have REM sleep.
Our first visit to REM typically lasts about for about 10 minutes and we start our journey back down to stage 2, stage 3 and stage 4 sleep. This cycle repeats throughout the night, however, as the diagram below illustrates, we spend most of the first half of the night in deep sleep (slow wave or NREM), and most of the second half in REM sleep.
Sleep deprivation and the ED night shift.
changing job or moving house, and I told you about the Greenberg et al (1972) study in which men showed footage of a circumcision being carried out reported less anxiety each day when it was shown again. However, if deprived of REM sleep they were just as anxious on subsequent screenings.
Sleep deprivation studies
These are interesting in their own right, but from a practical point of view can be used:
· As evidence for the restoration theory of sleep
· In an essay on the methods used in the study of sleep
· As an example of disruption of biological rhythms
Total sleep deprivation
These studies tend to be carried out on student participants at various universities, for example Loughborough and Edinburgh in the UK. There are also the two infamous cases of sleep deprivation for the purposes of charity and notoriety in the Guinness book of records.
tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) they spend less time in REM.
However, when treatment is stopped there is no REM rebound. Perhaps this is due to the drugs providing whatever chemical REM sleep usually provides. Antidepressants increase levels of serotonin and dopamine. Stern and Morgan (1974). So perhaps REM is a time for the brain to replenish its supply of neurotransmitters that it has used up during the day.
This is not easy so I shall spend time explaining it in class
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Causes of Sleep Deprivation Essay - Paper Topics
This case however is unusual and it is estimated that in the UK with an average of 7.5 hours sleep per night, that most of us are in a state of mild sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation studies highlight the need for sleep to maintain normal levels of awareness and cognitive ability as well as psychological health. Three or four nights without sleep can result in symptoms of mild paranoia and hallucinations. Yet, even in the most extreme cases, such as Randy Gardner’s eleven nights without sleep, the effects are not long lasting.
The nature of sleep
It is possible that you will be faced with a short question on the nature of sleep. If so use the material on the stages of sleep (see the biorhythms booklet) covering stages 1 to 4 and REM and the characteristics of each. Later in this booklet we will also look at lifespan changes and the way in which sleep patterns alter with age. If this wasn’t enough it might also be possible to include material on sleep disorders, again to be covered later in this booklet.
Theories of sleep
Why then do we sleep, and why do we spend almost one third of our lives in this state of reduced consciousness? There are two main theories:
Sleep Deprivation Essay Midnight Sleep Aid Where To Buy
working 2 or 3 days on any one shift) were preferable to slower rotation of shifts. This seemingly contradicts the work of Czeisler.
Even with a constant shift pattern such as 10pm to 6am (night shift) there are issues. Although the worker will adapt to this pattern by experiencing a shift in biological rhythm there will be disruption at the weekend when presumably, not being at work, they will adopt a more sociable day pattern of recreation before restarting the night shift the following week.
Using artificial light to reset the body clock
Boivin et al (1996) put 31 male participants on an inverted sleep pattern (so they were awake at night and slept during the day). This lasted for three days. Each day when they woke they were sat in front of dim lights for 5 hours and then placed in one of four conditions:
Core body temperature was recorded and used as a measure of how well they were adapting to the new rhythm.
After three days:
Sleep deprivation essay - Why worry about the report
ground squirrel, have burrows where they are safe, similar to the shrew, but since they are larger and have a lower metabolic rate, they need to eat less often and so can spend longer tucked away in their burrows asleep.
However, there are some glaring anomalies. On the face of it you would expect species most at risk to sleep longer (in order to get added protection) but often the opposite is the case. Species most at risk such as herbivores sleep least (a few hours a day in brief naps), whilst species that are at little risk such as big cats sleep for most of the day! Since this can’t be explained by one aspect of the theory (protection), food intake and metabolic rate is used instead. The lion has a large protein-rich intake every few days. Because of its size it has a relatively low metabolic rate. As a result it has time to sleep for over twenty hours a day.
Herbivores with their impoverished diet of grass need to be eating all the time so don’t have the time to sleep.
Animals sleep for short periods if:
1. They high metabolic rates so need to be constantly eating.
2. They are likely to be eaten.
Animals sleep longer if:
1. They have low metabolic rate, eat less and therefore have more time available to sleep.
2. They have no natural predators
Other obvious evaluation comments
If the only purpose of sleep is to protect from harm, then why do species that face the most risk when asleep bother to sleep at all. Surely it would make more sense to stay awake and alert to danger. Research in India for example has suggested that given a choice, lions are happier tucking into a sleeping human than a more active one! Evans (1984) sums it up nicely: ‘The behaviour patterns involved in sleep are glaringly, almost insanely, at odds with common sense.’
Sleep can also be dangerous in other respects as these two dolphin examples illustrate:
The Indus dolphin is at constant risk from being hit by logs and other big river debris being swept down the River Indus. Clearly, loss of consciousness is life threatening since it means loss of vigilance. However, despite this it still grabs quick naps of a few seconds at a time. In effect, this dolphin is risking its life to sleep. How can this be protective?
The Bottlenose dolphin sleeps with one hemisphere of its brain at a time (unihemispheric slow wave sleep) so it can remain partly conscious and return to the surface to breathe. This takes place in two hourly cycles with one half of the brain always remaining fully conscious. The fact that it has evolved such a bizarre sleep pattern suggests sleep is serving an essential purpose.
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